A barium enema is another name for colon examination. This procedure is done to examine the small and large intestines to diagnose if there are any perforations, thickening or other abnormalities in the colon area. This procedure is done by inserting a well-lubricated enema tube with a barium medium into the colon to detect growths, inflammations and other problems.The diagnosis shows up in an X-ray fluoroscope screen. Barium enema helps a lot in detecting colon as well as colorectal cancers. It is one of the imaging procedures used by doctors to view the development of cancers in this part of the body.